Wednesday, May 20, 2020

The Twelve Tables Essay - 1457 Words

The Twelve Tables were the first laws ever written down and shown to the public in Ancient Rome. The Twelve Tables were displayed in the Roman Forum or marketplace. The Twelve Tables were also the earliest surviving writings of Ancient Rome. When the founding fathers started to draw up the Constitution, they looked at Rome, and were inspired by The Twelve Tables to write the first laws of the United States. The Twelve Tables were not just the first written down laws in Ancient Rome. The Twelve Tables were used as a basis of future law throughout the world. Rome was changing. The people of Rome were changing. The citizens of Rome were getting tired of being ruled by others. They wanted to rule themselves. So after years of fighting†¦show more content†¦Caesar then went to Rome and declared himself Emperor just as Sulla did before him. As the Republic of Rome transitioned into an Empire, The Twelve Tables stood the test of time. As the empire began to fall, The Twelve Tables were spared. In the Middle Ages, Rome’s Twelve Tables were fairly similar to the laws of the time. In 1787, when the Constitution of the United States was being written, James Madison as well as the Constitution drafters looked to R ome as a model for their new government. Both of the set of laws underline a person’s individual rights. However, something was missing. Fresh in the minds of the new American citizens were violations of individual rights during the colonial and revolutionary periods. Several states made their ratification of the 1787 Philadelphia Constitution contingent on adding a Bill of Rights. This would more explicitly, outline individual freedoms of a person The First Congress of the United States, therefore, on September 25, 1789, proposed twelve amendments. The founding fathers dipped into the Roman past another time. The Twelve Tables clearly affected and motivated the writers of The Constitution to copy the laws of the Romans. The First Table of the Twelve Tables states translated from Latin to English, â€Å"When an accuser calls the defendant to court, the accused is required to go. If the accused does not come and the accuser can provideShow MoreRelatedThe Twelve Tables Of The Roman Empire940 Words   |  4 PagesRuby Driscoll Hickey Twelve Tables April 26, 2017 The Twelve Tables Though the Twelve Tables are not widely known, they played a large role in establishing the early Roman government. Not only were they the first set of written laws in the Roman empire, the Twelve tables bound the Plebeian and Patrician empires to the the same set of regulations. The Twelve Tables inspired other nations at the time to form an organized system and regions around the world still use the basic fundamentals ofRead MoreThe Code Of Hammurabi And Twelve Tables2006 Words   |  9 PagesThe Code of Hammurabi and Twelve Tables The Code of Hammurabi from the ancient Babylonian civilization, and the Twelve Tables from Ancient Rome society were both sets of laws from by which their societies had to abide. The Ancient Babylonian society abided by the Code of Hammurabi while the Ancient Romans abided by The Twelve Tables. Although they both served as promising laws to live by, they also served as tools that defined and distinguished each citizen’s position in theRead MoreThe Roman Revolution1540 Words   |  7 Pagescomposed of assimilated rules and regulations from other cultures. The Twelve Tables allowed the republic to expand and be a model for future cultures. They were the best attempt at all-encompassing laws and rights, that were binding to every person in the republic, not just Roman citizens. As such, it broke down the barriers between the classes and rights of every individual, creating equality. The key to Roman law was The Twelve Tables, as they united Romans and allowed Rome to progress past the timeRead MoreThe Development Of The Roman Republic861 Words   |  4 Pagesleft to battle its own structural demons. Romans based their identities off of unwritten morals and beliefs established through tradition. The struggle within Rome is evident throughout the writings of Appian and Rigsby. The development of the Twelve Tables brings forth the beginning of Rome’s attempt to establish order throughout the republic and balance both the cultural and economic beliefs. I will prove that the Roman Republic used law in an effort to keep cultural traditions and establish economicRead MoreTwelve Angry Men1446 Words   |  6 PagesReginald Rose and depicts a story about twelve jurors trying to determine if a young boy is found guilty of killing his father. The play starts out in the courtroom where the judge is giving instructions to the jurors on the murder case. It is stated that if the young man is found guilty, he will be charged with a mandatory sentence of the death penalty. It is now up to the twelve men to determine if this young man should be sentenced to death. The twelve men then file into the jury room and sitRead MoreAn Experimental Animal Injected With Endotoxins1136 Words   |  5 Pagesabsorption of plasma with Filter-Cel. Table 1-A shows the range of activity of the varying clotting factors in the normal plasma of the 12 dogs used in this experiment. As a control for the one-stage prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and factor assays, plasma from one normal male dog was used throughout the entire experiment. The dog had not manifested any bleeding while under observation and his coagulation tests were within normal limits. Twelve individual dogs were studied in detailRead MoreHigh And Medium Growth Bacterial Code1477 Words   |  6 Pages+++=High growth, ++= Medium growth, += Low growth and - = No growth. Thirty two strains which showed high and medium growth ability at 55oC were retested at the same conditions, i.e. streptomycin supplementation and at 55oC, results are present in Table 12. Table 12: Growth ability of thirty two fusants in streptomycin medium at 55oC. Growth Bacterial code Growth Bacterial code + 58 + 1 + 60 + 9 +++ 61 + 11 +++ 62 + 12 + 63 + 13 ++ 65 + 14 ++ 66 + 16 + 68 + 17 +++ 70 ++ 19 ++ 71 + 20 ++ 73 +++ 33 + 79Read MoreUsing The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale856 Words   |  4 Pageswere present. By 9:30am Ms. L had all twelve of her students present. The state ratio for a pre-k classroom is one to twelve, meaning one teacher can be with twelve students. However, if another teacher was present in the classroom they could have up to twenty-four students. This ratio includes four and five year olds. All the children in Ms. L class are four years old, currently none of her students will turn five until the month of April. Three out of twelve students in the classroom have eitherRead MoreThe Last Supper By Leonardo Da Vinci875 Words   |  4 Pagesbefore his time; such as, blue prints for a helicopter and parachute. â€Å"The Last Supper† is one of the most famous works of Christian art and it displays the moment Jesus Christ declares that one of his twelve apostles will betray him. Jesus Christ is located in the middle of the table surrounded by his twelve apostles who are split up into groups of three. The painting illustrates the emotional reaction of each of the apostles as they discuss who will betray Jesus. Positioning of characters and contrastingRead MoreSociety and the Nature of Time1107 Words   |  4 Pagesarticles include Twelve Tables: Laws and Offenses and Damages, The Salic Law, Policing Calvin’s Church, and James I Defends Absolutism. Through my pa per I would like to analyze each of the texts, including historical background (date, place, circumstances surrounding the document’s creation and other significant elements), context, and then to connect these three documents within doing right and having an upright society. The first source we have to look at is the Twelve Tables: Laws on Offenses

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Lord of the Flies - 871 Words

Writing an Interpretive Composition Piggy is an important character in William Golding s Lord of The Flies. The novel follows a group of boys who crash land on a deserted island. At first, the boys believe that they will be rescued and will soon return to their normal lives. The reality of the situation, is that the world outside of the island is in war. The island becomes their new home. Using Piggy s physical features, mental state, and emotional level, Golding makes Piggy a symbol of security, and civilization. Piggy s character plays a major role because he serves as Golding s personification of intelligence, and critical thinking. Piggy is very important in the story, he is the character that gives the story kind of a†¦show more content†¦There is nothing on the island, just these boys he tried to tell them that; he tried to tell them there is nothing to fear. â€Å"I know there isn’t no beast—not with claws and all that I mean- but I know there isn’t no fear either† (page 84). He tries to tell the boys, that the only thing to be afraid of is themselves. They have all turned into such monsters and they are the only ‘beasts’ on the island. Piggy stays calm under pressure and thinks through situations clearly and thoughtfully, moreover; he is mature and independent. Piggy should have been elected leader even though his physical features don’t meet the boy’s standards. All of the other boys constantly leave him alone to fend for himself and take care of the young boys on the island. His independence is a principal factor that keeps him from turning into a monster like the rest of the boys do by the middle of the novel. At the beginning of the boys journey, Piggy found the conch, which is a shell that when blown brought all of the boys into a ‘family’ meeting. This allowed the conch to represent order and democracy. Until his death, Piggy tries to make the boys stay calm and close. By the end of the novel on the boys have become completely divided, and Piggy and Ralph are completely on their own. Piggys glasses have been stolen by the other boys in the separate group, in his desperate effort to get hisShow MoreRelatedThe Lord Of The Flies1262 Words   |  6 Pages2015 Lord of the Flies Research Paper Evils are what drive all of the negative things in society. Characteristics of evil are all around us in our everyday lives. political leaders, celebrities, People we idolize show characteristics of evil. Even small insignificant roles in society hold certain evils in their motives. Throughout this story these evils were for once boldly stated for all to understand. The games the boys play,the fire they set, and their rescue, in the Lord of the flies showsRead MoreThe Lord Of The Flies1468 Words   |  6 PagesThe Lord of the Flies tells the story of a group of English schoolboys marooned on a tropical island after their plane is shot down during a war. Though the novel is fictional, its exploration of the idea of human evil is at least partly based on Golding’s experience with the real-life violence and brutality of World War II. Free from the rules and structures of civilization and society, the boys on the island in Lord of the Flies descend into savagery. Golding’ s experience in World War II had aRead More Lord of the Flies1827 Words   |  8 Pageswhich desire to follow through with. William Golding’s Lord of the Flies and John Polson’s Hide and Seek are two prime examples that demonstrate the conflict between civilised behaviour and savagery through their characters’ cultured manners, savage impulses and struggles as they decide who they really are as people. The instinct to follow rules and act in a civilised manner is highlighted throughout the first four chapters of Lord of the Flies, but is especially perceptible in the boys’ behaviourRead MoreLord of the Flies1669 Words   |  7 PagesLord Of The Flies Summary [pic] |Lord Of The Flies Summary - The Island | |Lord of the Flies is set during World War 2 on a tropical island in the Coral Sea. A group of boys survive a plane crash and are| |left stranded on a deserted island with no adults. At first the boys cling to the principles and laws they were taught during | |their upbringing. They call a meeting where they establish rules,Read MoreLord of the Flies642 Words   |  3 PagesThe book Lord of the Flies shows us how humans act when there is a weakly constructed system of power. We see how a group of civilized young men change into a bunch of crazy animalistic beasts over a very short period of time when there is no one who is â€Å"above† them to order them around and set rules. In The Hunger Games we see a society of people grouped into districts who follow the strict rules of the capital. If you question the capital or disobey one rule or show any sign of treasonRead MoreThe Lord Of The Flies1262 Words   |  6 Pages2015 Lord of the Flies Research Paper Evils are what drive all of the negative things in society. Characteristics of evil are all around us in our everyday lives. political leaders, celebrities, People we idolize show characteristics of evil. Even small insignificant roles in society hold certain evils in their motives. Throughout this story these evils were for once boldly stated for all to understand. The games the boys play,the fire they set, and their rescue, in the Lord of the flies showsRead MoreLord of the Flies2048 Words   |  9 PagesIn William Golding’s Lord of the Flies, symbols are illustrated through people, objects, and colors. In this novel, a group of children are faced with the difficulty of living isolated from society after their plane crashes on a deserted island. With no formal civilization, parents, or rules, the kids have the freedom to do as they choose. Throughout the novel, the boys find and use objects on the island that symbolize something of different importance. In Lord of the Flie s, William Golding usesRead MoreThe Lord Of The Flies1385 Words   |  6 PagesLord of the Flies In a life or death situation, desperate people resort to drastic measures. Some people were taught how to survive in brutal situations while others were never taught how to hunt if they were lost in the forest. In this life it’s either we know how to survive in a life or death situation or we learn as we go and do everything possible to stay alive. It is normal for people to experience immoral behavior due to the environment they are in and there is not much that can be done. IRead MoreThe Lord Of The Flies1111 Words   |  5 PagesThe Lord of the Flies Research Project While the World War II was in act, Adolf Hitler once incited â€Å"You only have to kick in the door, and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down†(Adolf Hitler). The structure coming down symbolizes the fact that the boys’ structure of order, and civilization came crashing down as well. This is found throughout the book. Adolf Hitler is known for his dictatorship, his exquisite leadership skills, and violent warfares.. He uncovered that leadership skillsRead MoreThe Lord Of The Flies2105 Words   |  9 PagesBefore starting The Lord of the Flies, a lone question that summed up the entire book was proposed: Are humans good or evil? Though it may not seem like a puzzling question at first, everything inside, and outside of the book makes it more complicated. If we are evil, then everyone would be turned against everyone else from the start, and if we are good, we would always be for everyone else at the beginning. Neither is present in the real world, bring up the question, what is humanity’s true goal

Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Practices

Question: Discuss about the Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Practices. Answer: Introduction Strategic analysis helps in the in-depth analysis of an organization for understanding its strategic position. It also helps in searching for the answers that arise in the internal environment of an organization like the inquiry about the present business environment, what are the available options and the process to develop the competencies for meeting the changes in the environment of the business. These questions help the organization to match its development and growth objectives with the existing reality of the environment of business (Rothaermel 2015). The decisions should be based on close analysis of the markets and products and not on blind optimism to match the reality with the objectives of the organization (Hill, Jones and Schilling 2014). This assignment will conduct the strategic case analysis of a large company based in UAE named Almarai for providing the company with the recommendations for improved long-term performance. Almarai is a public food industry that was established in 1977 in partnership with the Irish agri-foods. Almarai is regarded as the worlds largest vertically integrated dairy company with the products like dairy, juices, yogurt, infant formula, poultry and bakeries in UAE (Cummins 2016). The company underwent a drastic business change in 2005 as it transformed from a privately owned company to a company that is publicly listed with over 70,000 shareholders. A further investigation of the strategic analysis of the organization will be conducted in the commencing sections of the assignment (Sahoo 2016). Strategic analysis of the organization Political- Almarai is affected to a great extent by the import law and governments relations with foreign countries. Government regulations and policies regarding agricultural products have impacted the decisions of farmers to keep livestock sufficient to meet the needs of e company. The agreement on the Health Check has led to the obligation of abolishing UAE milk quotas in 2015. The agreement has also put forward measures for preparing the UAE dairy product industry for the situation. Any deal to be made must be unbiased and has to consider UAEs interest, especially in relation to agriculture (Nagy 2016). Economic- better standard of living, growing level of population and altering dietary prototype in UAE have lead to increase in food demand. However, prices are found to have fallen after a time frame of record commodity prices in early 2008 and early 2007. This fall in prices is crucial since the world economy is found to be facing a major downturn as a result of an amalgamation of adverse macroeconomic factors. Nevertheless, the medium-term projection for dairy products are good, and this is vital for the profitability of almarai (Sadi 2014). Social- the average size of dairy farms in UAE is 48.7 hectares. The age report of dairy producers indicates that it is the youngest of any farm in UAE. The majority population of the dairy farmers is of age less than 35 years. This implies that there is a scope of expectation for dairy food product companies, like almarai, as there are more chances of adopting new technologies in the farms, bringing benefits to the companies. Attitudes towards health complications, like obesity, can have a negative impact on the sales of dairy food products (Kumar and Prabhakar 2013). Technological- there is a need to bring developments in the product mix of almarai in order to combat the competitive pressure in relation to decrease in prices of food products and removal of price supports. Research and development would help the company in attaining a lesser level of dependency on low margin commodity products. It would also be a help to give emphasis on higher value added products (Aldosari and Atkins 2015). Environmental- almarai depends heavily on livestock and therefore the health and availability of livestock are a major concern for the company. Epidemics, plagues and other form of diseases affect livestock in UAE. Any such case of concern reduces the productivity of the company. Climatic conditions are a major influencing factor for the success of the product lines of food companies. As UAE is a warm country, the frozen products are successful (Pooch 2015). Legal- prices of food are found to be rising in the country in the recent past as a result of monopolistic activities by import facets. The liberalizing trade actions encompass 12 different sectors, including food product industry. Compliance of laws in relation to product labeling and advertising is crucial for Almarai as it produces dairy food products. It also needs to refrain from false claims regarding advertising. Food regulation bodies would have a role in the operations of the company. The products need to have nutritional information and specification of allergic products on them as a mandate of law (Tajkarimi, Ibrahim and Fraser 2013). Five-force analysis Bargaining power of suppliers- More diversification of the distribution channels implies that a single distributor will have less bargaining power. Almarai is considered as a difficult qualitative factor, and as a result, the competing institutions would be having a smooth time while overcoming it. Suppliers, when are dependent on high volumes, gives rise to less bargaining power since a producer can cut volumes and reduce the profit of the supplier. This process has the possibility to positively impact the organization. The factor that high level of completion between the possible suppliers leads to a reduction of prices to producers is a positive aspect for the organization (Eden and Ackermann 2013). Bargaining power of customers- when buyers are not much sensitive to prices there is an increase in the prices. Inelastic demand has a positive impact on the organization as there would be a reduction in costs. Since the customers cherish the products of Almarai, they would end up paying more for the products that are valuable to them. Leverage of limited bargaining promotes the profits of the organization. Limited buyer choice has a positive impact on the organization as customers provided with limited choices end up paying more for those that are available. Intensity of existing rivalry-government policies and set of regulations have the capacity to dictate the competition level of the industry, including this particular organization. Limited competition is beneficial for Almarai and adds to the value of the organisation. Almarai has a large industry size, and this permits multiple producers and firms, paving the way for prosperity without any need for stealing market share from other companies. There are few competitors of the company who compete for the similar resources and customers. This is, therefore, a beneficial factor for the organization (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson 2012). The threat of substitutes- there are an inadequate number of substitutes for Almarai, implying that the customers do not have the opportunity to find other similar services and products fulfilling the needs they have in relation to the products they use. A limited number of substitutes is a high qualitative aspect that cannot be easily defended and competing companies would, therefore, have a tough time overcoming it. The threat of new competitors- weak distribution networks means that the expense to move around is more, and there is a chance that some goods may not get to the customers. Almarai has a strong distribution network that positively impacts the company. Customers are loyal to the branding Almarai has. The company has spent resources to build this strong brand, and this has resulted in fewer resources to compete for. The company has high capital requirements. This implies that the company needs to invest in huge amounts for competing in the present globalized market. The company has high sink costs that make it difficult for any competitor to enter the market in an effective manner. Almarai has a strong brand name that has been established over the years. Competitors of the company will therefore have to improve their branding if they want to have a strong competition with this company. Advanced technologies applied by the operations of the organization are a highly advantageous factor that the competitors need to build up (people.stern.nyu.edu 2016). SWOT analysis Strengths- Almarai has a multiple numbers of positive aspects that make the company an emergent leader in the industry it belongs to. The company has a robust and professional management team that can handle any critical challenge when it poses a threat to the profit of the company. The well recognized and strong branding is another point of strength for the company. The company has diversified products, like bakery and fruit juices, which make it appealing to the consumers. The company bears high average yield per resource used, bringing in benefit to the company. Committed investments in high-class dairy farming, integrated set-up, state-of-the-art processing units together with a strong network of distribution make up the most remarkable features of the operations of the company. The company focuses on innovation of new products and the packaging process, resulting in increased coverage. Extreme climatic conditions support the high consumption of liquids, thereby increasing the sa les of the liquid products. The huge population base translates into huge demand in the local area. The reduced labor costs, skilled workforce, experienced business setups, high rate of growth, higher operating margins are the other strengths of the company (Johnson et al. 2013). Weaknesses- one of the significant weaknesses of almarai is the high business operations concentration in the Riyadh region. The balance sheet of the company is moderately leveraged, implying an issue to be given immediate attention. Outside Saudi Arabia, there is no provision for production facilities set up by the company. This limits the chances of expansion outside Saudi Arabia. The turnover ratio of employees is unsystematic and high, reported at around 155. This has a negative impact on the company. The sector that the company operates in is highly reliant on emigrant labours. It also depends on to a large extent on the import of feed stocks and raw materials (Serkin 2015). Opportunities- increasing market share proves to be a good opportunity for the company to gain more profits in future. The company can consider venturing into product lines it has not got involved into yet. Geographic expansion of the companys operations to the Middle East and North African countries would be a positive step taken for bringing benefits to the company at large. The company must emphasize on the development of the fruit juice and dairy products as a drastic change in the consumer behavior is noticed in the recent past. Consumers are becoming highly health conscious, and this would likely increase the demand for health-conscious food products (Lasserre 2012). Threats- appreciation of major currencies, including Euro, can lead to the increase of feed stock cost, thereby translating into lower margins. The reason for this is that Saudi Riyal is pegged to the dollar. Government restrictions, when imposed on the price of retail foods, become a threat to the profitability of the company. The company suffers low margins on sales with hypermarkets and supermarkets contributing around 20% of the revenues. Possible loss of investment as a result of a failure of Zain KSA operations adds to the threats the company has. Rising costs of raw materials, growing competition and changes in price are the other threats the company suffers (Mahajan 2012). Stakeholder analysis Almarai is one of the largest food and beverage manufacturer and distributor in Middle East. Individuals, groups or organizations are affected by what an organization does. The effect may be on that particular organization as well. In this manner they are said to have an interest or stake in the decisions of the organization. Stakeholders are both internal and external who together help in having a smooth functioning of the operations of the organizations. The internal stakeholders of Almarai include the employees of the organization at all levels and managers and supervisors. The external stakeholders include the standard agencies, the government, the customers, and the local community in which the organization operates. One of the most important internal stakeholder groups for Almarai is the employees. The food industry depends on expertise people able to manufacture food products that are hygienic and good quality. Keeping in mind the importance of the employees the company promot es better job security, training program and other beneficial initiatives. Stakeholder engagement is enhanced by strategic consultancy, design initiatives and content development. Ethical values cover all stakeholders; those are the shareholders, consumers and employers. Values are based on transparency, fairness, respect, integrity and trust (Grain 2012). Addressing competitive advantages: innovation, quality, efficiency and customer responsiveness The four main building blocks of competitive advantage are innovation, quality, efficiency and customer responsiveness. These four factors when considered together with each other creates value and generates high profitability for the organization (Hatch and Howland 2015). Almarai needs to give emphasis on all the four factors as an amalgamation for getting the best benefits and having a sustained competitive advantage. The efficiency of Almarai can be increased by having a standardized process, thereby boosting the productivity of the employee. The economics of the scale in purchasing would also be boosted by a standardized process. Both of these would be an advantage to the company by lowering the costs. Standardized processes also would help in ensuring reliable quality. The quality of food sold by almarai is reliably dependable. It needs to bring improvement in the quality of food in order to maintain the value for customers. The company needs to take steps for raising the percei ved quality of the food by using milk that is reliable in its quality. Customer responsiveness can be demonstrated by the shift towards healthier meals. A decision to offer drinks of more high quality would also draw attention of the customers. Innovation in the food products can be brought through a strong research and development process. The company needs to build up a more efficient research and development team for gathering valuable research data from food industry across the world and incorporating them in its own production process (Katsioloudes and Abouhanian 2016). Strategic alliances beneficial of the organization Almarai must continue to see out relationships with other agencies and partners that can be a source of enhancement and growth for the organization. The company must seek eligible partners who are aligned with the mission and vision of Almarai and are committed to the enrichment of the consumers served by almarai. It is desirable that the company works closely with the farmers, livestock producers, suppliers at a regional collaborative platform. Positive change can be driven by working closely with the strategic partners (Khan et al. 2013). Fuller et al. (2016) outline the means by which strategic alliances can be made strong. First, early meaningful accomplishments are crucial for cross-partner team unity and morale. Second, it is significant to develop objectives that are out of the box. Thirdly, agencies need to have cost expectations that are realistic. Lastly, it is necessary to undertake only the critical few alliances for driving success. By these methods, the organization can continue to remain the efficient and lean organization it is that is effective in minimizing the duplication with regional bodies. Globalization as applied to the organization The world has witnessed significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century and last decade has seen the rapid transformation in technology, money, ideas and tastes of consumers due to globalization. Globalization is making an impact on all industries as it brings along opportunities, challenges and competition. To overcome the coming challenges and embrace the opportunities, industries must respond swiftly to the changes. For Almarai, globalization implies how effectively it embraces new things and responds to possible approaches and solutions to challenges for remaining competitive. In order to be on the safer side, the company needs to adjust the ways thing are done, the production and resources used. Reorganization of the operations would be a good move to remain in pace with globalization. Food products are to be manufactured that meet the value chain demands, the shift of consumer choices and preferences and enhanced consumer consciousness. Centralized, efficient and mo dernized dairy farming would drive the efficiency of the company. The environment footprint of farms is to be reduced. Using advanced technology for packaging and processing would drive down costs but maintain good food safety levels. The needs of the consumers are to be understood, and food products are to be made for meeting their needs (Grunert and Traill 2012). Major problems faced by the company and possible challenges in future According to Kapferer (2012), the food manufacturing industry is the largest industry in the world at present. The food industry is facing many challenges at the present time, the main issues being powerful retailers, fickle consumers, stringent food safety regulations and more. The biggest challenge that the company faces is from the consumers side. Consumers are avoiding the centre of store products at large in the recent times. This becomes an issue for traditional packaged food companies like Almarai. Consumers are wanting what they feel are healthier products (de Boer and Schsler 2016). Food companies like almarai have been suffering a dip in sales as consumers find it beneficial to buy less from the center store shelves. Consumers feel that fresh products are to be consumed more and therefore they thrive to buy food products after judging some parameters. Consumers are not focused on purchasing food products that are fit for their diet as before. The present scenario reflects t hat consumers are conscious of taking food products that enable them to cut down their calories and fat. They are now motivated to buy those products that are aligned with the well-being and health. This includes avoiding products with artificial ingredients. Almarai has the challenge of adapting to this trend and withstands the pressure of bringing changes in the types of products it manufactures. Major organizations across the world, like WHO and FDA, are moving out against the high sugar intake by the general population. They are recommending less calorie intake for health benefits and avoiding the chances of major health complications. The consumers are therefore avoiding foods that are high in sugar (Saguy 2016). The issue faced by the company is that many food products of Almarai have high sugar content. The challenge for the company is to continue producing sweet products that are not high on sugar content. Almarai is facing a challenge in bringing new products to the market that align with the emerging trends of the consumers within a specific time frame. There is a need to create new and relevant products and move them through research and development, testing process and marketing for retailing them on an effective basis. The main concern is that by the time some of the products are out in the market, the trends may be found to be changing. In addition, companies need to think about the designing and packaging of the products as for making them more appropriate and convenient for consumption. Consumer is moving away from the traditional way of having meals, and Almarai may have a major challenge in adopting to similar innovations in the near future. Almarai can be facing competition from more supple companies, making it difficult to stand out in the market. Conclusion The global demand for food products, especially dairy products is increasing, and the industry is expected to grow in the coming years. In order to maintain its supremacy in this industry, Almarai must take up certain measures that would help it maintain its position in the market. Almarai must boost its sales and focus on increasing its customer loyalty. The supply chain must improve its effectiveness and efficiency. Global competitiveness can be built by making the supply chain work together for adding values to the products. Together retailers, processers, and farmers must build strong relationships that are based on evenhanded value creation. The performances of the concerned departments are to be measured in terms of environmental sustainability. Technical efficiency improvement can be beneficial for the production of almarai. The company needs to be more responsive to the ever-changing needs of the consumers. More collaboration with the concerned stakeholders would also be a be neficial step for the organization. Almarai is always known to be leading the way for production innovation as it has emerged as a leader who can control the large market share in the area of operations. The belief of business analysts is that the company is commended to apply three branched strategies as reflected through the growth initiatives. Expanding business outside Saudi Arabia can have a possibility of challenges to operate successfully in those markets. Nevertheless, since the company has a strong brand value and ability to remain a market leader, the company can be surely said to be well positioned and ready for taking up challenges and emerging as a leader. The company has adopted several profit maximizing and growth-oriented initiatives in the past, compelling analysts to have a positive overview of the company. References Aldosari, A. and Atkins, J., 2015. A study of corporate social responsibility disclosure practices in Saudi Arabia. Cummins, S. (2016).First hand experience on Saudi's largest dairy farm - Almarai - Agriland. [online] agriland.ie. Available at: https://www.agriland.ie/farming-news/first-hand-experience-on-saudis-largest-dairy-farm-almarai/ [Accessed 11 Dec. 2016]. de Boer, J. and Schsler, H., 2016. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.Appetite,103, pp.95-104. Eden, C. and Ackermann, F., 2013.Making strategy: The journey of strategic management. Sage. Fuller, G.W., 2016.New food product development: from concept to marketplace. CRC Press. Grain 2012.The great food robbery: how corporations control food, grab land and destroy the climate. Fahamu/Pambazuka. Grunert, K.G. and Traill, B., 2012.Products and process innovation in the food industry. Springer Science Business Media. Hatch, N.W. and Howland, C., 2015, January. When Does Competitive Advantage Improve Customer Welfare?. InAcademy of Management Proceedings(Vol. 2015, No. 1, p. 18091). Academy of Management. Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014.Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning. Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D. and Hoskisson, R.E., 2012.Strategic management cases: competitiveness and globalization. Cengage Learning. Johnson, G., Whittington, R., Scholes, K., Angwin, D. and RegnÃ… ½r, P., 2013.Exploring Strategy Text Cases. Pearson Higher Ed. Kapferer, J.N., 2012.The new strategic brand management: Advanced insights and strategic thinking. Kogan page publishers. Katsioloudes, M. and K Abouhanian, A. (2016).The Strategic Planning Process: Understanding Strategy in Global Markets. 1st ed. Khan, R.S., Grigor, J., Winger, R. and Win, A., 2013. Functional food product developmentOpportunities and challenges for food manufacturers.Trends in food science technology,30(1), pp.27-37. Kumar, R. and Prabhakar, R.K., 2013. Opportunities and challenges in Indian dairy industry supply chain: A literature review.International Journal of Logistics Supply Chain Management Perspectives,2(4), p.791. Lasserre, P. (2012).Global strategic management. 1st ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Mahajan, V., 2012.The Arab World Unbound: Tapping Into the Power of 350 Million Consumers. John Wiley Sons. Nagy, P., 2016. 0918 Camel milk from commodity to added value product. The science behind the development of the camel dairy industry.Journal of Animal Science,94(supplement5), pp.442-442. people.stern.nyu.edu. (2016). [online] Available at: https://people.stern.nyu.edu/adamodar/pc/blog/Almarai/AlmaraiAnnualReport.pdf [Accessed 11 Dec. 2016]. Pooch, D., 2015. Miraka dairy factory-a unique development.Food New Zealand,15(3), p.10. Rothaermel, F.T., 2015.Strategic management. McGraw-Hill. Sadi, M.A., 2014. Marketing trends and future challenges: A review of dairy industry in Saudi Arabia.International Journal of Dairy Technology,67(4), pp.459-466. Saguy, I.S., 2016. Challenges and opportunities in food engineering: Modeling, virtualization, open innovation and social responsibility.Journal of Food Engineering,176, pp.2-8. Sahoo, S. (2016).Saudi dairy company Almarai to trim annual investment | The National. [online] thenational.ae. Available at: https://www.thenational.ae/business/retail/saudi-dairy-company-almarai-to-trim-annual-investment [Accessed 11 Dec. 2016]. Serkin, G., 2015.Frontier: exploring the top ten emerging markets of tomorrow. John Wiley Sons. Tajkarimi, M., Ibrahim, S.A. and Fraser, A.M., 2013. Food safety challenges associated with traditional foods in Arabic speaking countries of the Middle East.Trends in food science technology,29(2), pp.116-123.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The Fine Arts Reduced to a Sin Essay Example

The Fine Arts Reduced to a Sin Essay The Fine Arts Reduced to a Single Principle? The theory that all art is imitation is a good starting point to deciphering what exactly art is, but it is not the cornerstone, contrary to Plato, Aristotle, and Batteuxs beliefs may be.Batteauxs Single Principle of the fine arts suggests that all art is imitation of beautiful nature conveyed through colours, relief, and attitudes.An obvious counter argument to that theory is music.As one of the fine arts Music in general is not imitative.Possibly earlier chanting rituals could be related to imitative animal sounds, as Carroll suggests, and even Rap artists from today such as DMX might fit in this category; who imitate animal sounds in their music, whether it be by barking, or even cooing like a pigeon.But to suggest that symphonies that were in existence at the time of Batteauxs text are imitative is absurd.Most of the early theories on art are irrelevant to todays work, the definitions dont seem to have a very long shelf life as the art ists are constantly trying to out do the philosophers. Its almost like a game.To classify all art under one category is a daunting and in my opinion futile task.Consider all the different genres of art, from music to painting to sculpture to dance to film, and then from there, divide those into their own respective genres, abstract, symbolist, surrealist, et al. There cannot be a single definition for all forms of art today.In each philosophys time, Im sure they were fairly accurate in their theory of their art, but to think of relating these primitive theories to todays art is absurd to say the least. Neo-representationalism is the closest theory of art in thefirst readings.To say that art has to be about something is very accurate, art has a purpose, it is created for a reason, therefore it is about something.To be able to classify such difficult art pieces such as ready-

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Why did Tunisia and Egypts governments fall Will they become democracies

Why did Tunisia and Egypts governments fall Will they become democracies For several weeks, between December 2010 and March 2011, the world was treated to a show of uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt. Unlike the common military coup de tars, citizens of Tunisia and Egypt successfully depose long-ruling dictators through civil demonstrations. It all started in Tunisia in December 2010 when citizens joined a nationwide mass action protesting against President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali’s oppressive rule.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Why did Tunisia and Egypt’s governments fall? Will they become democracies? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A few weeks later, Egyptians joined the dance protesting against President Hosni Mubarak oppressive rule. The results in both countries were the same; citizens through mass action managed to oust long ruling dictators. From an outward look, these countries seemed more developed compared to most African countries. Yet, their citizens bec ame so frustrated and desperate, so much so that they decided to fight for their own course. Therefore, the question is, why did these governments fall? The answer remains the same for both; lack of democracy characterized by dictatorship and oppression. We know of successful non-democratic countries like Iran and China, but the former, their rule was too much of authoritarian. Fortunately, citizens managed to bring down governments they believed were the main obstacle to their democracy. Nevertheless, do these events mark the beginning of democracy in Tunisia and Egypt? This essay, therefore, seeks to answer these two important questions. Reasons for the fall of Tunisia and Egypt’s governments Both Egypt and Tunisia’s governments had several similarities. To begin with, they both had the longest serving presidents in their history. Whereas President Ben Ali had ruled Tunisia for 23 years, President Hosni Mubarak had ruled Egypt for 30 years until the time of the fall of their governments. Their reign was characterized by dictatorship leaving very little space for democracy. However, their reign encouraged development of their nations, no wonder they enjoyed the support of the West. Nevertheless, why did these long-lived governments fall? The fall of Tunisia and Egypt’s governments was caused by both political and economic factors. Of great importance to this essay are the political reasons as discussed below. As had been mentioned, the lack of democracy is to blame for the fall of both Egypt and Tunisia’s governments. Democracy in practice denotes a form of government in which all citizens play an active role in the decision making process (Held, p. 12).Advertising Looking for research paper on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Every democratic society must portray the following key elements: popular sovereignty, equality before the law, separation of powe rs, individual freedoms, political tolerance, transparency and accountability, and rule of law (Held, p. 20). Democracy is more than just holding elections (Pipes, par. 2). It demands protection of the minority rights, enhancement of individual and political freedoms, independence of judiciary, political party pluralism, and the development of civil society (Pipes, par. 2). Did Tunisia and Egypt’s governments reflect these principles? Although Tunisia was a constitutional republic that encouraged representation of citizens through multi-party democracy, it had strong characteristic of dictatorship that had negative impact on human rights and freedoms. On the other hand, Egypt was a semi-presidential republic that maintained one-party rule. There were several concerns relating to democracy in both countries. First, both Tunisians and Egyptians expressed their concerns about lack of free elections. In Egypt, there was a growing concern about power inheritance. Credible sources reported that Hosni Mubarak started grooming his son, Gamal Mubarak, way back in 2000 to be his successor after his retirement in 2010 (Sobelman, p. 31). This arrangement was met with sharp criticism from political groups in the country, the majority of which were illegal given the lack of political party pluralism in the country. The possibility of power inheritance triggered the demand for multi-party politics to ensure that elections were free and fair. To the contrary, President Hosni Mubarak amended the constitution to ensure that Gamal would be the only presidential candidate (Sobelman, p. 34). Tunisia, on the other hand, had political party pluralism, but its elections were never free and fair, a strategy that made President Ben Ali remain in office for as long as he wanted. Democracy dictates fair and competitive elections that grant the people a chance to elect the leaders they consider best fit for the office. Power inheritance is an insult to democracy and with the electi ons first approaching and Hosni Mubarak’s health deteriorating; Egyptians would not want to have the same experience as Syria hence they decided to use the power of the majority to change the course of their politics just as Tunisians did. Second, both governments curtailed political freedoms. In Egypt, this was archived through the extension of emergency law. Enacted in 1967 following the Six-Day War, the law suspended individual freedoms including freedom of assembly and freedom of expression (Shehata, par. 23). Under the emergency law, police force was allowed to use excessive force, media houses could be censored, and the government could imprison individuals indefinitely without any proper reason (Shehata, par. 23). This resulted into increased police brutality, and long-term detention without trial. For instance, during a parliamentary election in December 2010, an estimated number of between 5,000 and 10,000 people were detained without trial (Press release, par. 7).Ad vertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Why did Tunisia and Egypt’s governments fall? Will they become democracies? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Police brutality was also widespread during Hosni Mubarak’s reign. According to the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights, Egypt recorded 567 cases of police torture, including 167 deaths during the period between 1993 and 2007 (Staff writer, par. 7). With such breach of human rights, it was prudent that citizens would fight for their course. In Tunisia, despite being a multi-party country, Ben Ali’s government thwarted any effort by opposing political parties and civil society to check it. Anybody who criticized the government would risk being detained. President Ben Ali even enacted a ban on political parties deemed unsavory. Such measures curtailed various political freedoms and were a direct insult to democracy. Democracy demands freedom of ass ociation and expression. President Ben Ali’s government must have been too much of a dictatorship and thus oppressive to the citizens. This can explain why Bouazizi’s self-immolation spontaneously caused nationwide protests that resulted into the fall of Ben Ali’s government. Tunisia’s government was sitting on a time bomb waiting to explode and Bouazizi’s self-immolation was like a switch on the circuit. Third, both governments grossly violated freedom of speech as provided for in democracy. President Hosni Mubarak’s reign was marked by frequent media censorship and detention of anybody who expressed any critical view on the operations of the government. This over restriction of the media denied the press a chance to report on government’s wrongdoings. The situation was the same in Tunisia. President Ben Ali’s government restricted media freedom through media regulation and censorships, despite the same government preaching pr ess freedom. Limiting a press is like denying citizens a right to information; a direct insult to democracy. Such levels of oppression must have been too much for citizens of these countries hence the witnessed uprisings that led to the fall of the oppressive governments. Last, Both Tunisia and Egypt’s governments were marred with corruption. Political corruption became the order of day in President Hosni Mubarak’s government with powerful businessmen allied to the ruling party rising to power and monopolizing Egypt’s business sector. As a result, they accumulated wealth and became the core players in Egypt’s economy. This created a perception among Egyptians that the nation’s wealth only benefited businessmen allied to NDP. In Tunisia, the situation was somehow similar. President Ben Ali and his first family ran the nation’s economy for their personal gain. President Ben Ali solely made all the key decisions concerning privatization and inv estment, despite the existence of well-defined liberal economic legislation in the country.Advertising Looking for research paper on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, his first family accumulated wealth in the key sectors of the economy leading to a perception that connections to the first family were necessary for business survival. In 2010, Egypt recorded a Corruption Perception Index of 3.1 whereas Tunisia had a CPI of 4.3 (Corruption Perception Index 2010, results table). The high level of corruption in Hosni Mubarak’s and Ben Ali’s governments angered citizens and hence, the fall of Tunisia and Egypt’s government. Prospects for democracy in Tunisia and Egypt Having outlined the underlying political causes of the fall of Tunisia and Egypt’s governments, I now shift my discussion to the future of these countries. The citizens nonviolently fought and defeated the governments they perceived oppressive and obstacles to their democracy. However, the question remains, could this be a new dawn in Arab world? Will these countries become democracies? From the recent uprisings, everyone would be quick to conclud e that Tunisia and Egypt have started a democratic journey and will soon become democracies. The demonstrations by citizens proved that they are democratic and are aware of their democratic rights. However, understanding the prospects for democracies in these countries requires a deeper understanding of the concept of democracy. From its definition, democracy is a fusion of two important ideologies, i.e., popular sovereignty and freedom (Mandelbaum, par. 3). Freedom as contained in democracy comes in three forms: political liberty, religious liberty, and economic liberty (Mandelbaum, par. 4). Here is where the challenge lays a head for both Egypt and Tunisia. Egypt is extremely Islam with well-organized Muslim groups that pose a threat to full democracy. For instance, Muslim Brotherhood is against religious liberty and rights of women. Should such extremists have access to power, then there will be very little room for liberty in Egypt (Benhenda, p. 10). Tunisia, on the other had, h as made some progress in protecting women’s rights, but is still largely Islam hence may reject religious liberty. These countries may enjoy popular sovereignty exercised through free and fair elections, but popular sovereignty without liberty in not genuine democracy. As Pipes (2011) maintained, democracy is much more than just holding elections (par. 2). Moreover, the establishment of liberty requires such institutions as legal system with impartial courts (Mandelbaum, par. 7) that are unfortunately lacking in both Egypt and Tunisia. A true democracy would mean a complete overhaul of the countries’ judicial system, which may take years to be achieved. Whether this will be possible is still unclear and we can only wait and see. Furthermore, the development of democracy requires free-market economy as have been witnessed in successful democracies in Asia and Latin America. Unfortunately, both Egypt’s and Tunisia’s economies are based on capitalism, whereb y individual’s economic prowess is determined by his political connections contrary to free-market economy hence not fit for democracy (Mandelbaum, par. 10). Nevertheless, both Tunisia and Egypt have some prospects for democracy. The citizens of both countries have proved that they are democrats through the recent uprisings. Egypt does not have many ethnic inclinations or even natural resources that have been the major obstacle to democracy in most Arab countries hence its democratization would be easy. However, Tunisia, have more prospects for democracy than Egypt. First, Tunisian elite have been demanding for political reforms since 1970s. Second, Unlike Egypt, Tunisia has made significant progress in protection human rights especially women’s rights. Third, the country has an extensive middle class that is well aware of their democratic rights hence a good foundation for democracy. Conclusion The uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt made a significant democratic step in t he Arab world. From political point of view, the demonstrations are largely attributed to the apparent lack of democratic space in these countries. As Marxists put it, a lack of democracy encourages thrive of all political vices hence an impetus for uprisings. The success of every nation requires existence of some level of democracy. However, whether Egypt and Tunisia will become democracies is a wait-and-see scenario. From the prevailing conditions, Tunisia has more prospects for democracy compared to Egypt. Benhenda, Mostapha. â€Å"Liberal Democracy and Political Islam: The Search for Common Ground† (2009). Politics, Philosophy Economics, Vol. 10, No 1, 2011. Islamic Law and Law of the Muslim World Paper No. 09-83. Print. Corruption Perception Index 2010. Transparency International, 2010. Web. Held, David. Models of Democracy (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006. Print. Mandelbaum, Michel. â€Å"Can Egypt Become a True Democracy?† Project Synd icate, 2011. Web. Pipes, Daniel. â€Å"Why Egypt Will not Soon Become Democratic.† State Brief Blog, 2011. Web. Press release (2010). Egypt: Keep Promise to Free Detainees by End of June: Joint Statement. Amnesty International. Web. Shehata, Samer. Egypt After 9/11: Perceptions of the United States. Contemporary Conflicts, 2004. Web. Sobelman, Daniel Gamal Mubarak, President of Egypt? Middle East Quarterly Vol. 8. 2 (2001):  pp.  31–40. Print. Staff writer (2007). Egyptian Police Sued for Boys Death. BBC News. Web.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Broken Education, Broken Future

The Broken Windows Theory, first introduced in 1982, asserts that disorder and crime are connected and that disorder can negatively impact society, leading to a high incidence rate of crimes, both misdemeanors and felonies. Through order-maintenance policing, disorder can be controlled, creating a safe and orderly atmosphere, instilling trust between law enforcement and civilians, and the crime rate can be maintained at a low rate. While there is evidence that correlation between Broken Windows policing†¦ Is Britain a broken society? Is Britain broken? Well it is a matter of opinion. I for one believe that in some aspects it is but in others it could not be better. For example, Amelia Gentleman of The Economist website recently conducted an interview with an undertaker in her town. â€Å"Since the beginning of the year, Cuthbertson (the undertaker) has presided over 20 funerals at his church in Easterhouse, in the east end of Glasgow: five of them drug-related deaths, the others triggered by lung cancers†¦ The Broken System Suffering and being neglected on a daily basis is not something someone has to ever encounter. The foster care system is failing because of all of the flaws that exist which results in the harm of bringing down innocent children. The state of Florida has been the first state to ever make all foster care privatized. While the foster care system in Florida is able to get many children adopted, many several of them also suffer from permanent health issues because of the broken system†¦ Death Penalty – Broken System Jorge Lozano Jr. ITT Tech CJ2799 - Criminology and Forensic Technology Capstone Project CJ2799 March 10, 2015 Mr. Gonzales Death Penalty – Broken System The U.S. Constitution and Supreme Court deemed that capital punishment is acceptable when the severity of the sentence was appropriate to the crime. Thirty Seven states still allow the death penalty to be carried out. The systems process is not consistent throughout the states. The states need to become†¦ do about it? When parents split up, there can be many emotions that a youth may have to deal with. These feelings, internalized or expressed, will result in certain behavior that will possibly affect to the youth’s outlook in life. Being a broken hurts! It is the collapse of a God intended design. Children can get robbed of a special experience and protection called "Family". They move on in their lives as individuals without the understanding of what familial security and bond is. They look†¦ CPS: A Broken System Jack was a happy and healthy nine-month old baby boy. He had white-blond peach fuzz growing on his round little head and bright, blue, inquisitive eyes. He was the first grandchild in his family and was adored by his parents, grandparents, aunts, and uncles alike. His father, Thomas, was an extremely busy young man. He was a college student who worked full-time and an Army Reservist. When Baby Jack’s mother, Misty, went on a trip, his daddy asked her brother and his wife†¦ The class was tuning their instruments, each string one by one. While the teacher was in the midst of fixing a broken string, which seemingly never did get fully repaired, the phone rang. First once, then twice. The class got silent, as if it was a matter of life or death. Instantly, I knew it was for me. i closed my eyes, in fear that I would start to cry. The ringing stops abruptly, I can hear the mumble of the teacher 's words while on the phone upfront. Its as if my hearing became muffled, almost†¦ forces a child to grow up in a broken home, it can change the way a child feels towards one parent, they may have problems maintaining healthy relationships with people, and it may just change the way they view marriage as a whole. Personally my parents were never married but the effects of their separation on me where the same as if they were divorced. Growing up in a broken home is not a healthy way for a child to grow up. What exactly is a broken home? A broken home is a household where both†¦ questions these abnormal traits as if they are temporary, however, they are innate and therefore, cannot be changed. Cathy Davidson’s, Project Classroom Makeover, talks about how hierarchies have created a broken education system whose educational standards do not provide customized education to every student. On the other hand, Son by Andrew Solomon is about the false dichotomy of using illness to obscure identity and vice versa. Solomon’s axis of identity can be used to understand Davidson’s hierarchies†¦ take a stand against the lack of teaching going on in his class (Broderick). Across America, young people are being short changed due to a broken education system. Bliss is just one example of the shared frustration felt by students. In an interview, Jeff said one of his key points is the fact that it's not just about his education, it's about our education. "If we embrace this, I feel as if we can make a serious change and a positive change. But if we just want to ignore and push this to the side†¦

Thursday, February 13, 2020

The new meaning of Quality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The new meaning of Quality - Essay Example If we see the size of operations at Sainsbury's meting these attributes consistently is a big challenge . Over the years the business and organizational environment has increasingly become more and more complex. There has been an explosion in choices, options, opportunities and threats, requirements, data and information through IT systems. Organizations have understood the hidden cost of quality, errors, inventories associated with inefficient supply chain. These factors have led to the emergence of a new discipline of supply chain management. A supply chain is essentially managing the journey of inputs to the outputs along with all the associated activities having impact on cost, speed and quality of the output through the journey. Ganeshan & Harrison in their paper explains how traditionally there has been organizations within organizations, silos of functions / departments, each one having their own characteristic goals, many a time at conflict with the organizational goal, resulting in an inefficient supply chain marked by interface problems. The result of these factors is that there is not a single, integrated plan for the organization. Supply chain addresses these issues effectively. Coordination between the various players in the chain is key in its effective management. Cooper and Ellram [1993] compare supply chain management to a well-balanced and well-practiced relay team. Quality begins and ends with customers For any Quality Management System, customer requirement is the input and customer satisfaction is the desired output. The entire quality movement is based on simple but elegant Deming's PDCA cycle. First step in the quality journey is capturing customer requirement followed by design / modification of functions/systems for deployment and continuous improvement of the same through repetitive cycles of feedbacks. The customer experience is captured at Sainsbury's through well-placed mechanisms. Customer Insights group carries out the work of obtaining the true customer requirement by interacting with more than 4000 customers every month which includes obtaining the performance of competitors also in the area of customer satisfaction. Besides the regular channels of obtaining customer perception there is another mechanism to find out customer requirement, which involves trained auditors capturing the customer experiences in the store itself. The practice of interviewing customers in their homes is yet another valuable source of customer expectation determination. The information captured through these mechanisms form the inputs for the Quality Management systems and other operational instruments for delivering the quality products and services to the customers. Supply Chain Transformation at Sainsbury's for improving delivery of quality Sainsbury's had witnessed more than 100 years of successful operations and established itself as market